South Korea (한국, 韓國 Hanguk), officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국, 大韓民國 Daehan Minguk) is a country in East Asia.
Legend has it that Korea began with the founding of Gojoseon (also called Ancient Chosun) by the legendary Dangun in 2333 BC.
Archaeological and contemporaneous written records of Gojoseon as a kingdom date back to around 7th-4th century BC.
Gojoseon was eventually defeated by the Chinese Han Dynasty and its territories were governed by four Chinese commandaries, but this did not last long.
Natives of the peninsula and Manchuria soon reclaimed the territory, namely the Three Kingdoms of Korea, Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje.
The Joseon dynasty ruled Korea from 1392 to 1910, being one of the longest actively ruling dynasties in world history.
It was during the early part of the Joseon dynasty that Korean technological inventions such as the world's first water clock, ironclad ship, and other innovations took place.During the rule of King Sejong the Great, the world's first rain gauge was invented and the Korean alphabet known as hangul was created.Rapid modernization stirred by the Second Industrial Revolution created tension between China and Japan as they felt the pressures of Western expansionism, each wanting to extend their influence over Korea.This would mark the last time China had any foothold in the peninsula.Despite repeated attempts by China, namely the Sui Dynasty and later the Tang Dynasty, to conquer the Korean Peninsula, northern-based Goguryeo managed to repel them.Eventually, Goguryeo fell to a Silla-Tang alliance, which had earlier defeated Baekje.