(1790), Edmund Burke wrote that, “[l]ess inquiring people receive the[ir] opinions from an authority which those whom Providence dooms to live on trust need not be ashamed to rely on.” For those who choose not to live on trust, the following notes might suffice as a guide into the literature and to suggest some of the nuances that were elided in the interests of a smoother story for general readers. Of course, that’s only true for humans (based on the genes we’ve sequenced so far). For example, for guppies, significant adaptation can happen in as litle as 10 years (30 guppy generations), although it’s not yet clear how much of that is genetic rather than epigenetic (that is a non-genetic change in the protein compositions of the cells the genes express themselves in). As of July 1st, 2005, and not counting the president or vice president, or household staff and military staff.
An earlier version of the same idea dates back to 1819 and Lord Byron: “ ’Tis strange—but true; for Truth is always strange, / Stranger than Fiction: if it could be told.” that our groups often do things in ordered ways, however not through our generosity but more through our selfishness. 7 of the top 25 aides are female (about 28 percent).
His idea enraged a lot of readers, who saw it as immoral, sinful, and degrading. 34 of the top 81 aides are female (about 42 percent).
Back then, reading his work must have been like expecting that in many cases, in at least some of our markets, there seems to be a hidden order to how we network, and it needn’t be one that anyone intends. Data from: “2005 White House Office Staff List,” Dan Fromkin, July 1st, 2005.
For him, such networks appear to be guided—but not by us, rather by an invisible hand. “The evolution of fungus-growing termites and their mutualistic fungal symbionts,” D. By July 1st, 2009, in the next White House, of the 147 aides earning over 0,000 (to a maximum of 2,200, with one exception at 2,934) 65 (44 percent) were female.
Every step and every movement of the multitude, even in what are termed enlightened ages, are made with equal blindness to the future; and nations stumble upon establishments, which are indeed the result of human action, but not the execution of any human design.” Adam Ferguson, 1767, Duncan Forbes (editor), Edinburgh University Press, 1966, page 122. Also, reductions in home employment for females has been compensated for by male home employment. The industrial phase change that followed was a bonfire that could burn only after a lot of tinder ended up, for whatever reasons, in one place and time.
Ferguson’s last line is a secular reformulation of an age-old religious thought (that is, ‘divine providence,’ which goes back at least as far as Thomas Aquinas, five centuries before). In essence, he argued that to explain the human equation, we need not introduce the divine. And the overall pattern seems to be similar in both the United States and Europe. That happened first in Britain, perhaps just as farming happened first in Iraq millennia ago.
Then, if that was accepted, he argued that we also didn’t need the next level down proxies of the divine: Great Heroes who can foresee all possible outcomes and force a design that will lead to the ‘best’ outcome far into the future. Aanen, Besides our own species, only a few genera in three animal orders (termites, attine ants, and ambrosia beetles) farm. But if our species does indeed pile up tinder over time, that tinder has to pile up enough somewhere first.
In essence, he argued that nobody can foretell the future—the contingency of events is too complex—however, after the fact we inevitably look back and assume that at the beginning of things someone must have done so, because how else could things have worked out the way they did? (Although some other species are so mutualist that they are co-dependent and may be described as horticultural.) “High symbiont relatedness stabilizes mutualistic cooperation in fungus-growing termites,” D. Then it’s just a question of whether it’ll be dry enough there so that a match can set it ablaze.
Adam Smith, Edwin Cannan Edition, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1952. Of the 23 top aides, 8 are female (about 35 percent).
Today, Smith may be the most famous to broach such ideas, but he wasn’t the first, although today he’s recognized as the first to set them in the context of an economic theory. Others, particularly those involved in the Scottish Enlightenment, added various insights before, or around the same time as Smith, notably: David Hume, Adam Ferguson, Josiah Tucker, Dugald Stewart, Joseph Butler (Bishop of Durham), Anthony Ashley-Cooper (third Earl of Shaftesbury), and Francis Hutcheson. Twelve in Peace, ten in Literature, seven in Physiology of Medicine, three in Chemistry, two in Physics, zero in Economics.
For example, in 1767 Ferguson wrote that, “Mankind, in following the present sense of their minds, in striving to remove inconveniencies, or to gain apparent and contiguous advantages, arrive at ends which even their imagination could not anticipate; and pass on, like other animals, in the track of their nature, without perceiving its end. (Marie Curie got two of them, one in Physics, one in Chemistry. (That includes barbers, cosmetologists, makeup artists, manicurists, and pedicurists.) There were 435,000 computer programmers.